61. Billmeyer, Fred W. , and Max Saltzman. Principles of Color

Technology. Rev. ed. New York: Wiley, 1981. 240 pp. Index, bibl.,

B/W illus., color illus. ISBN 0-471-03052-X.

    This revised, enlarged, and updated edition includes all of the topics

covered in the 1966 edition -- how the eye detects color; properties of light;

the Ostwald, Munsell, and CIE color systems; color instrumentation; classes

and uses of colorants; and use of colorants in industry--while putting more

emphasis on color matching instruments, and techniques for color study

such as sampling and statistics There are many new illustrations and the

bibliography has been updated through 1980. Like its predecessor, this

clearly written text serves as a useful introduction to the study of color


62. Bouma, P. J. Physical Aspects of Colour. Rev. ed. Edited by W.

deGroot, A. A. Kruithof, and J. L. Ouweltjes. New York: St. Martin’s,

1971. 208 pp. Bibl., glossary, B/W illus., color illus.

    Originally published in Dutch in 1945, this introduction to the

scientific study of color stimuli and sensation begins with a discussion of

color, light, and physiology. It surveys brightness, luminance, the color

triangle, color space, the CIE system, colorimetry, visual inspections of

color samples, and defects in color vision. A history of the development of

color science is followed by information on color differences and

characteristics of color sensation. Practical applications focus on artificial

daylight, signals, and, of special interest to the design reader, color

reproduction, television, and photography. Much of the information is very

technical, but the chapter on the historic development of color science is


63. Boynton, Robert M. Human Color Vision. New York: Holt, Rinehart and

Winston, 1979. 438 pp. Index, bibl., endnotes/footnotes, B/W illus.,

color illus. ISBN 0-03-084682-X.

    This definitive work on human color perception begins with a

history of color science. Parts of the chapters on subjective color, color and

light, vision as it relates to the perception of form and color, and color

matching are accessible to any interested reader. The remaining chapters on

visual sensitivity, encoding color, chromatic discrimination factors,

variations, and defects in color vision are more complex. A summary

section and extensive content and bibliographic notes conclude each chapter.

The 21-page bibliography includes both books and journal articles.

64. Branley, Franklyn. Color from Rainbows to Lasers. New York: Thomas

Y. Crowell, 1978. 87 pp. Index, bibl., B/W illus., color illus. ISBN 0-


    In this simple introduction the author explains color, light, and the

physiology of color vision and discusses the hue, value, and chroma

characteristics of color related to the Munsell color system. Color

phenomena such as afterimages and the spreading effect are also

considered. Although aimed at the young reader, this is an excellent

resource for the novice who wishes to develop a basic knowledge of color.

65. Burnham, Robert W., Randall M. Hanes, and L. James

Bartleson. Color: A Guide to Basic Facts and Concepts. New

York: Wiley, 1963. 249 pp. Index, bibl., B/W illus., color illus.

    In 1954, the Board of the Inter-Society Color Council appointed a

subcommittee to create “a statement of the basic principles which should be

included in any elementary teaching of color.” The resulting detailed outline

of facts is intended to meet the needs of teachers and to serve as a reference

for the knowledgeable student and for textbook writers. Color is defined as

“an aspect of visual experience” with the characteristics of hue, saturation,

and brightness. A discussion of how color is experienced is followed by a

look at color science, color measurement, and color systems. The book

concludes with information on color vision theory, color aptitude,and

includes summary data of studies of color preference. Despite its age, this

book is useful for its refreshingly direct outline format and for the clearly

written text.

66. Chamberlin, G. I. and D. G. Chamberlin. Colour: Its Measurement,

Computation and Application. London: Heyden, 1980. Heyden

International Topics in Science. 137 pp. Index, bibl., endnotes/footnotes,

B/W illus., color illus. ISBN 0-85501-222-6.

    The physical and physiological basis of color perception and

methods for detecting color vision deficiencies are clearly explained. The

discussion of methods for defining and comparing colors includes a brief

but useful description of major color systems and visual instruments. Color

measurement focuses on the CIE system and a computer program named

“Colour.” Applications of colorimetry to industrial needs conclude the

book. While its highly technical nature restricts the book’s appeal, the

serious beginning student will find some sections accessible.

67. Cole, K. C. Facets of Light: Colors, Images, and Things That Glow in the

Dark. San Francisco: Exploratorium, 1980. 169 pp. B/W illus., color illus.

    Designed to explain to visitors the phenomena that are demonstrated

in the fascinating exhibits on view in the Exploratorium’s Light and Color

area, this book can also be used independently. Neat line drawings and

photographs supplement an easy-to-read text that covers a broad range of

color, light, and visual perception facts. Lack of an index, the use of a

casual first-person writing style, and regular references to the displays may

frustrate readers who are unable to see the actual exhibitions.

68. Evans, Ralph Merrill. An Introduction to Color. New York: Wiley, 1948.

340 pp. Index, bibl., endnotes/footnotes, B/W illus., color illus.

    Here is a clearly written overview of the effects of the “properties of

colored light, the properties of vision, and the action of the mind in

interpreting color,” offered by the long-time head of the Color Control

Department for Eastman Kodak Company. He discusses the physical,

physiological, and psychological aspects of color and covers pigments and

color application in photography, art and design. The level of explanation

presupposes no more than an elementary understanding of physics or

psychology. Although the illustrations are dated, this non-mathematical

presentation can still be recommended as a useful resource. The author’s

Perception of Color (1974) reports his new findings and revised ideas about

color perception.

69. Evans, Ralph Merrill. Perception of Color. News York: Wiley-

Interscience, 1974. 248 pp. Index, bibl, B/W illus.

    Evan’s final book features most notably a new organization of the

main perceptual variables, beyond hue, saturation, and brightness. The first

major section on single stimuli encompasses physics and physiology,

metamerism and psychophysical variables, colorimetry, and afterimages. A

second section on related stimuli, includes chromatic stimuli with

achromatic surrounds. He identifies six psychophysical variables:

“dominant wavelength, the purity, and the luminance of the stimulus, and

the relative luminances, dominant wavelengths, and purities with respect to

the surround.” The final section treats the observer and general stimulus.

Evans’s dissatisfaction with his earlier explanations (An Introduction to

Color, 1948) prompted further studies of saturation and the discovery in

1958 of a new visual threshold by Evans, Burnham, and Newhall. Armed

with the new facts, Evans refutes some “firmly held beliefs” and historic

oversimplifications, maintaining that the “importance of' gray and grayness

of colors . . .is shown for the first time to be the important separate variable

that it has always appeared to artists.” Although considerable prior

technical knowledge is required for a full understanding of this complex

material, the author’s clear style makes certain relevant sections accessible to

interested design readers. Worthy of special attention are the accounts of

the connection between illumination, brilliance, and color relativity, which

challenge the dominance of color as hue, value, and chroma in the art and

design literature. Other discussions related to visual design contexts include

an analysis of saturation, brilliance, and chroma in the Munsell system, the

Ostwald system, and Arthur Pope’s The Language of Drawing and

Painting, which anticipates Evans’s four variables of hue, saturation,

brilliance, and lightness.

70. Hurvich, Leo M. Color Vision. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates,

1981. 328 pp. Index, endnotes/footnotes, color illus. ISBN 0-87893-


    This authoritative and well-written text on the physiology of color

vision includes many discussions that will be useful to the design reader.

Chapters on “Spatial Contrast and Assimilation Effects” and “Temporal

Contrast Effects” describe ways in which the physiological phenomena of

afterimages and simultaneous contrast constantly affect our vision and how

these phenomena are utilized by light sciences (e.g, photography). Other

interesting and well-illustrated discussions cover achromatic and chromatic

simultaneous contrast effects; afterimage; Pointillist color mixture; additive

and subtractive color mixture; assimilation effects; a 16-hue circle based on

four unique hues or “primaries”; and a concluding chapter on color

reproduction, photography, printing, television and painting. While the

book does not presuppose prior knowledge, it develops its explanations

quite technically and is geared toward the advanced reader who approaches

color science from a physiological or human perception standpoint.

71. Judd, Deane Brewster, and Gunter Wyszecki. Color in Business, Science,

and Industry. 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 1975. 553 pp. Index, bibl.,

B/W illus. ISBN 0-471-45212-2.

    Color systems, scales, and standards are thoroughly addressed in

this authoritative book. Main sections cover the eye and light, color

measurement tools such as spectrophotometers and colorimeters, color

standards, and the physics involved in colorant layers. The highly

technological viewpoint that focuses on industrial use of color assumes a

working knowledge of complex mathematics which limits its usefulness to a

design audience.

72. Kuehni, Rolf G. Color: Essence and Logic. New York: Van

Nostrand Reinhold, 1983. 138 pp. Index, bibl., endnotes/footnotes, B/W

illus., color illus. ISBN 0-442-24722-2.

    This well illustrated and documented book contains clear and

concise information on perception, color sources and systems,

measurement, and industrial uses of color. It is suitable for anyone who

lacks a color science background but wants more detailed information than

that included in general color surveys. The explanation of the colorimetric

system and the information on dyes and pigments are particularly good, but

the discussion of applications is very brief.

73. MacAdam, David L., ed. Sources of Color Science. Cambridge,

MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1970. 282 pp. Index,

bibl., endnotes/footnotes, B/W illus. ISBN 0-262-13061-0.

    Excerpts from important writings by major thinkers from Plato

onward, are arranged chronologically from 380 BC to 1947. Edited by a

senior member of the Eastman Kodak Research Laboratories, this

compendium gathers sources “that are not well known or readily accessible”

into one handy and instructive volume. MacAdam’s drastic pruning and

editing of the original works by such writers as Isaac Newton and Hermann

von Helmholtz makes the material vastly more approachable and interesting

to the contemporary reader.

74. Mueller, Conrad G. , and Mae Rudolph. Light and Vision.

New York: Time-Life, 1966. 200 pp. Index, bibl., glossary, B/W illus.,

color illus.

    An excellent overview of the science of light and the physiology of

vision is presented in this book. Although limited to about 50 pages this

book’s discussion of color science covers the subject intelligently without

requiring prior knowledge of science or color. This concise, highly

readable, and beautifully illustrated volume puts the role of color science in

perspective within an excellent overview of light, vision, and the

physiology of vision.

75. Murray, H. D. Ed. Colour in Theory and Practice. London: Chapman &

Hall, 1952. 360 pp. Index, endnotes/footnotes, B/W illus., color illus.

The first eight chapters deal with light, electromagnetic wave theory,

radiation phenomena, photo-chemical and photoelectric effects, absorption

and electronic and chemical structures. The physiological and psychological

aspects of color sensation are then discussed, with an emphasis on vision

and visual response to color. Final chapters address color measurement and

matching, color theory and use, and on color in nature. At the time of

publication this book must have been a valuable resource for its extensive

references and illustrations. The scientific information may be difficult for

the general reader to comprehend.

76. Nassau, Kurt. The Physics and Chemistry of Color: The Fifteen Causes of

Color. New York: Wiley, 1983. Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics.

454 pp. Index, bibl., B/W illus., color iilus. ISBN O-471-86776-4.

    Intended to fill the gap between specialized scientific monographs

and general books on color, this book begins with the nature of light and

color. Color is discussed as it relates to electronic energy levels,

compounds of transition elements, molecular orbitals, energy bands, and

geometrical and physical optics. General readers will find much of the

information complex and difficult to understand. However, the text is well

written and can be skimmed by readers interested in the non-mathematical or

nontechnical information it contains.

77. Optical Society of America, Committee on Colorimetry. The Science of

Color. New York: Crowell, 1953. 385 pp. Bibl., endnotes/footnotes,

glossary, B/W illus., color illus.

    The foundations of color science are clearly presented in this

collaborative book. A historical overview of color use and the origins of

color science is followed by a nontechnical discussion of color theory. The

book then becomes considerably more technical in its discussion of the

physiological and psychological aspects of color and methods for

colorimetry and color standards. Although now dated, this well-

documented resource offers an interesting perspective on color science and

technology in the 1950s since it was prepared by leading scientists Ralph

M. Evans of Eastman Kodak , Deane I. Judd of the U.S. National Bureau

of Standards, and Matthew Luckiesh of General Electric.

78. Overheim, R. Daniel, and David L. Wagner. Light and Color.

New York: Wiley, 1982. 269 pp. Index, bibl., color illus.

    This highly readable college textbook contains sections on the

physical nature of light, the origin and analysis of color, color vision, the

appearance of objects, optics, light and light sources, and color in nature. It

also surveys early theories of color vision and explains simultaneous

contrast and color constancy. The handsome color plates of special interest

to designers show the spectrum, additive and subtractive primaries, Seurat

paintings, process printing, and Land’s Retinex system. This book is

somewhat similar to Light and Color Nature and Art by Samuel Williams

and Herman Cummins, who commend Overheim in the foreword for

writing a “concise, easy-to-teach” textbook.

79. Rainwater,Clarence. Light and Color. New York: Golden, 1971.

160 pp. Index, bibl., color illus.

    The physical, physiological, and psychological processes involved

in human perception of color are the focus of this appealing little book.

Clear and concise discussions of electromagnetic energy and the visible

spectrum, additive and subtractive color, primary systems, and color

vocabulary are included. Although written for young people in a style that

does not overwhelm, this concise, accurate, and well-illustrated introduction

is also excellent for college-age beginning students.

80. Rossotti, Hazel. Colour. New York: Penguin, 1983. 239 pp. Index, B/W illus.

    The author, whose background is in chemistry, writes about color in

the natural world, and color vision in humans and animals. Color systems

are explained within the context of sorting and organizing color. Examples

are given of additive color such as color television, and subtractive color

such as paints and dyes, and color symbolism is described. The most

obvious shortcoming of this paper back is the lack of illustrations and color


81. Tschermak-Seysenegg, Armin von. Introduction to Physiological Optics.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1952. 299 pp. Index.

    The physical workings of the eye and vision are explained in a

scientific manner in this classic work. Design-oriented readers may be

interested in the material on simultaneous and successive contrast (or

afterimage) as well as in the color sense chapter that refers to Goethe,

Chevreul, and others. However, readers without a technical background

will find much of the information difficult to understand, particularly

without illustrations.

82. Wasserman, Gerald S. Color Vision: An Historical Introduction. New

York: Wiley, 1978. Wiley Series in Behavior. 224 pp. Index, bibl., B/W

illus. ISBN 0-471-92128-9.

    The basic concepts of color vision, including color vision

deficiencies, and their historical development are traced from Newton’s

theories to current developments in colorimetry. Information on

photometry, or the measurement of light as it is effective in vision, and

physiology rounds out this book. This thorough coverage of the subject

includes a bibliography (200+ items) of books and journal articles. Readers

with little prior knowledge may find this useful as an occasional reference

for finding definitive discussions of such topics as the strengths of the

Munsell system and the case for opponent colors.

83. Wright, W. D. Measurement of Color. New York: Van Nostrand, 1969.

340 pp. Index, B/W illus., color illus.

    Trichromatic color measurement principles, methods, and

applications are discussed in 10 chapters that focus on the visible spectrum,

perception of color and light, photometry and colorimetry, the CIE system,

metamerism, metrology, and color solids. Applications are discussed with

reference to spectrophotometers, colorimetry, industry, dyeing, lighting,

food, chemical tests, paint, signs and signals, and three-color reproduction

in photography, printing, and television. While nonspecialist readers may

find information on topics of personal interest, they may be stymied by the

many formulas and charts which require considerable prior knowledge.

84. Wyszecki, Gunter, and W. S. Stiles. Color Science: Concepts and

Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas. New York: Wiley, 1967. 628

pp. Index, bibl., B/W illus.

    Considered to be one of the most complete and important books on

the subject, this book is especially valued for its thorough treatment of

colorimetry. Light sources, vision, color systems and scales, and

measurement are also addressed in considerable detail. The 18-page

bibliography primarily cites journal articles. Heavy reliance on complex

mathematical equations and tables means this book will be difficult to

understand without considerable prior knowledge.