1. 469.Garcia, Mario R. Contemporary Newspaper Design: A

Structural Approach. 2nd, ed. Englewood Cliffs, NI: Prentice-Hall,

1987. 245 pp. Index, bibl., B/W illus., color illus. ISBN 0-13-17499-0.

    Excellence in design and editing is an important theme that runs

throughout 19 chapters on newspaper design that address typography, the

architecture of the page, order and continuity, graphic strategies,

informational graphics, photography and design, and the redesign process.

The color chapter, titled “Color: How to Use It and How Readers Perceive

It,” describes the landmark color research commissioned by the Poynter

Institute for Media Studies. Newspaper readers at four test sites scanned a

front page, life-style, and sports pages in black and white and in several

color treatments. A systematic eye-movement test and a semantic

differential test provided innovative research findings on color in graphic

design. The tightly organized and highly readable text, the excellent

graphic design of complex visual material, and the fine black-and-white and

color printing will inform and inspire design-oriented readers as well as

journalism students and professionals. The 249-item bibliography is

another asset.

470. Garcia, Mario R., and Don Fry, eds. Color in American

Newspapers. St. Petersburg, FL: Poynter Institute, 1986. 69 pp. Bibl.,

B/W illus., color illus. ISBN 0-93 5742-13-1.

    This Poynter Institute Graphics and Design Center Report consists

of papers presented at a 1985 conference that celebrated 25 years of

newspaper color. This highly readable account follows the color revolution

in daily newspapers through the 1980s and explains the new technology,

with particular reference to USA Today the St. Petersburg Times, and the

Orange County Register. Mario Garcia and Robert Bohle summarize

published studies of newspaper color and briefly describe the results of their

own research, which tested readers at four test sites who scanned

newspaper front page, life-style, and sports pages in black-and-white and in

several color treatments. Their systematic eye-movement test and semantic

differential test are prototypes for research on the role of color in graphic

communication. A strong case is presented for functional rather than

decorative use of color in newspapers. This informative text, supported by

fine illustrations, sets a very high standard for the graphic design field. An

unannotated bibliography of 180 books and articles on color in newspapers

through 1986 rounds out the book.

471. Garcia, Mario R. , and Pegie Stark. Eyes on the News. Edited

by Ed Miller. St. Petersburg, Florida: The Poynter Institute, 1991. 96 pp.

Bibl., B/W illus., color illus.

    This is a highly readable and beautifully designed presentation of the

Poynter Institute 1985 research project that used EYE-TRAC® equipment to

record how participants in three American cities followed color and process

images and print in newspapers. Many of the findings challenge previously

held myths and design formulas. The authors recommend hierarchy,

sequence, and points of entry as principles for effectively designing with

color. The authors’ guidelines for improving color design in newspapers

start with understanding readers’ eye patterns, designing for electronic

scanning technology, reviewing the Poynter color research, and learning to

experiment. Other sections focus on photographs, art, and colors in the

1990’s. Throughout the book -- and especially in the color primer section

and the tine information design section that presents their research statistics

-- the color design is both functional and glorious. This visually exciting

and superbly printed book will inform and inspire by example.

472. Moen, Daryl R. Newspaper: Layout and Design. 2nd ed. Ames: Iowa

State University Press, 1974. 263 pp. Index, bibl., glossary, B/W illus.,

color illus. ISBN: 0-8138-1227-5.

    This text intended for college students thoroughly covers newspaper

layout and design in chapters on page layout, use of type and photographs,

information graphics, design, and color. The design chapter gives special

emphasis to the principles of balance, contrast, focus, proportion, and

unity. The brief “Communicating with Color” chapter presents the findings

of research studies on reader response to newspaper color, including the

1986 Poynter Institute study by Garcia and Fry. Discussions of basic color

terms, how color is produced in newspapers, color theory with black-and-

white diagrams of the traditional 12-hue circle, and producing quality color

complete the brief chapter. Unlike many textbooks, this one uses

interesting documentation from a broad range of references to enrich the

text. Some readers will wish to consult another work that illustrates hands-

on methods and industrial processes more fully. The printing methods and

soft paper used in this publication result in an unfortunate loss of crispness

and detail in the numerous black-and-white illustrations.