GRAPHIC DESIGN


458. Arntson, Amy E. Graphic Design Basics. New York: Holt, Rinehart and

Winston, 1988. 214 pp. Index, bibl., glossary, B/W illus., color illus.

ISBN 0-03-003257-1.

    This interesting approach that integrates basic two-dimensional

design and perception principles with graphic design background

production and information. One third of the book consists of five chapters

that explain the design process, graphic design history, perception, visual

dynamics, and Gestalt principles. These prepare the student for the eight

following chapters on text type, layout, preparing camera-ready art, color,

advertising design, photography, illustration, and computer graphics.

Exercises and projects for students conclude each chapter. A chapter on the

dynamics of color explains color as light, describes a traditional color wheel

attributed to Herbert Ives, and logically introduces prospective graphic

design students to the printer’s cyan, magenta,and yellow as subtractive

primaries. Instead of the traditional 12-hue circle, black and white diagrams

show Munsell’s 10-hue circle, and an eight-hue circle, reminiscent of but

not attributed to Ostwald, with Ostwald color names. Brief discussions of

color combinations, color relativity, color psychology, and color

associations lead up to an overview of color in printing. This well-

illustrated text presents a manageable amount of information that will

appeal to beginning students. The bibliography lists references for each chapter.


459. Beaumont, Michael. Type & Colour. Oxford: Phaidon, 1987. 144

pp. Index, glossary, B/W illus., color illus. ISBN 0-7148-2489-5.

    Two major elements of graphic design, type and color, are clearly

explained through brief text and more than 400 illustrations selected from

top British and American design studios. Typography is addressed first,

with an emphasis on type face choice and layout to achieve innovative

designs. Then the importance of color in typography and background is

clearly discussed with an emphasis on human response to color. Examples

of both successful and less satisfactory color design are given. This

beautifully designed book, with its abundance of both black-and-white and

color illustrations, will be useful to graphic design students and

professionals.


460. Berry, Susan and Judy Martin, eds. Designing with Color:

How the Language of Color Works and How to Manipulate It

in Your Graphic Designs. Cincinnati, Ohio: North Light, 1991. 144

pp. Index, B/W illus., color illus. ISBN 0-89134-404-7.

    The basic premise here is that the principal functions of color in

graphic design are to attract and hold attention, to convey information, and

to make information memorable. This premise is put to the test in an

ingenious presentation of color polarities that interpret nine contrasting

“color moods:” cool/warm, passive/active, feminine/masculine,

natural/artificial, exclusive/popular, individual/corporate,

traditional/modem, classical/romantic, and retrospective/futuristic. For

example, the introduction to the natural/artificial section uses a green

background to drape the “natural” page, drapes the “artificial” page with a

saturated acidic yellow, and repeats these two colors in the headings in the

margins throughout the section. Five color themes are carefully discussed

and illustrated in sequence for each color pair: color associations;

combinations of hue, tone, and saturation; shapes and edges; size and

proportion; and pattern and textures. The innovative and systematic

organization, clear explanations, and fine examples of how color functions

in package and product design, posters, and advertising from around the

globe make this an outstanding reference for students and design

professionals. Curiously, Itten’s 12-hue color circle and hue gradation

schema are reproduced without attribution.


461. Cook, Alton, and Robert Fleury. Type & Color: A Handbook

of Creative Combinations. Rockport, MA: Rockport, 1989. 159 pp.

Color illus. ISBN 0- 935606-19-0.

    Brief essays by Allan Haley, Alan Peckolick, and George

Cawthorn focus on color and letterforms. Writing on “Color Interactions

and Contrast,” Cawthorn depicts temperature polarities in an interesting

color wheel of his own design. Dramatic design projects by outstanding

designers are accompanied by concise and often witty captions that analyze

color relationships and impact. The designs, from mailing pieces to

billboards, were created for such clients as Mobil, HBO Video, Vintage

Books, Columbia Pictures, and Bank of America. The book also contains

100 pages of color samples. Each page shows six different color bands and

gives their CMYK formulas. A pocket in the back cover holds 10

transparent overlays, each printed with eight typeface styles in three font

sizes, in 18 color variations. The authors claim that the color pages and

overlays allow for more than 800,000 combinations of color and type. In

addition to previewing color combinations for type and background color,

this cleverly designed book also facilitates study of color interaction through

direct observation.


462. Crow, Wendell. Communication Graphics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

Prentice Hall, 1986. 322 pp. Index, bibl., glossary, B/W illus., color

illus.

    “Fundamentals of communicating through graphics in print” for

students, teachers, supervisors, and professionals in graphic design,

publications editing or printing are brought together in this handsomely

designed, highly readable, and comprehensive work. The author surveys

the history and nature of graphic communication, the design process,

typographic images, typography, text preparation, graphic images,

processing text and image, publications design, and production. An

unusual section on business practices in industry discusses the procedures

and attitudes of printers and professionals. The concise color chapter that

rounds out the book shows a conventional 12-hue circle, explains additive

and subtractive primaries, and surveys many color technology topics such

as types of color printing, the Pantone® system, color separation by

scanner, and color proofing. Eight pages of excellent captioned color

plates, and fine black-and-white information graphics or photographs on

most pages make this an exceptionally striking reference. For information

on the impact of newspaper color on the reader will need to refer to the

work of Mario Garcia and Pegie Stark.


463. Danger, Eric Paxton. Selecting Colour for Print. Brookfield, VT: Gower

Technical, 1986. 184 pp. Bibl. ISBN 0-291-39715-8.

    In this entirely unillustrated book Danger presents guidelines for the

promotional use of print in graphic design, with four sections on general

principles, print, practical details, and the selection process followed by an

index of 13 colors and gray. He summarizes Gestalt grouping principles,

psychological responses to color, and optical and physiological facts. In an

interesting and thought-provoking index on color he systematically

describes color connotations, functions, and applications. For example, he

tells which colors should not be used for goods exported to specific

countries. Stating that this thorough examination of color use in the graphic

design business is based on a “lifetime of practice and collecting

information,” he does not cite his sources. The bibliography consists

primarily of titles from the 1950s and 1960s, including 1 1 titles by Faber

Birren. While Danger’s focus on the English market may limit the book’s

usefulness for the American reader, he maps out an increasingly important

domain that lacks systematic research.


464. Denton, Craig. Graphics for Visual Communication. Dubuque,

IA: Wm. C. Brown, 1992. Index, bibl., glossary, B/W illus., color illus.

ISBN 0-697-08540-6.

    This excellent and comprehensive text covers both “editorial

communication” for newspaper and magazine production and “persuasive

communication” for advertising and public relations. Introductory chapters

place graphics within historical, environmental, and psychological contexts,

the latter with reference to Gestalt perception principles. Next, consideration

is given to design, typographic, color, and photographic principles. The

rest is packed with background and practical information on application and

desktop and traditional production methods and technology. A color

chapter with many color plates briefly surveys the physical, physiological,

environmental, cultural, technological, symbolic, and aesthetic contexts for

color and summarizes color connotations. Other color topics include hue,

value, and saturation, and conventional 12-hue circles demonstrate

complementary, split complementary, triad, and tetrad relationships. A

color contrast section reminiscent of Itten touches on afterimage,

simultaneous contrast, light/dark contrast, warm/cold contrast, and color

proportion. A discussion of color reproduction summarizes additive and

subtractive color mixing. Intended as a general reference, the book

contains helpful marginal notes, concluding summaries and lists of six or

more points to remember for each chapter.


465. Dreyfus, Henry. Symbol Sourcebook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972.

292 pp. Index, bibl., B/W illus., color illus. ISBN 0-442-21806-0.

    This extensive survey of international visual symbols consists

primarily of black-and-white illustrations of symbols with labels identifying

their meaning. The symbols are organized in three ways: by discipline or

field, by form and shape, and by meaning. An often-cited 16-page section

on color deals with the symbolism of the primary and secondary colors plus

brown, silver, white, gray, and black. This undocumented tabulation of

color associations includes more than 25 different categories ranging from

alchemy and art to traffic and travel. Further discussion of how color can

be used to intensify a symbol’s meaning would have been useful.


466. Favre, Jean Paul. Color and und et Communication. Zurich:

ABC Edition, 1979. 167 pp. Index, color illus. ISBN 3-85504-056-7.

    Color is thoroughly discussed as it relates to signage, product

identification and packaging, advertising and marketing, and creation and

reinforcement of corporate image. A major portion of the book consists of

captioned color illustrations taken primarily from product packages and

advertisements. Written in a clear, concise manner, the text is provided in

English, German, and French. This excellent and enduring book on Swiss

design is filled with interesting and useful information on color preferences,

association, and symbolism and their impact in marketing.


467. Hamilton, Edward A. Graphic Design for the ComputerAge. New York:

Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1970. 191 pp. Index, bibl., glossary, B/W illus.,

color illus.

    Based on the author’s experience in directing design for print media,

this general survey of visual communication is not about computers, nor

does it contain much information on design and color. A five~page chapter

on color states that while color is useful for representing realism and for

providing visual codes that help the viewer sort and clarify information, it is

not essential for all visual information problem solving. He argues that

color is too often misused in information design when its sole purpose is to

attract attention. Despite the many illustrations and examples, glossary, and

the bibliography, the book’s value may be limited to documenting graphic

design in the 1960s.


468. Tufte, Edward R. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT:

Graphics Press, 1990. 166 pp. Index, B/W illus., color illus. ISBN 0-

9613921-1-8.

    In this new classic on information design, the author shows ways to

escape what he calls the “flatland” of two-dimensional paper and the

computer screen in six eloquent chapters on micro/macro readings, layering

and separation, small multiples, color and information, and narratives of

space and time. The concise text is generously illustrated with historic and

contemporary examples from around the world, including maps, charts,

tables, graphs and diagrams. Captioned marginal illustrations on every

page enrich and augment the text which compiles and integrates important

references from the field. The color chapter distills information from

Eduard Imhof’s Cartographic Relief Presentation, Berlin 1982, and others.

The eloquent text, the careful documentation , and the handsome graphic

design all reflect Tufte’s intelligent guidelines for information design.

Though examples of unsuccessful information design are used when needed

to make a point, nothing distracts from the flow of the clearly written text

and the beautiful illustrations. This is a superb example of unified design

image, and text.




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