343. Düttmann, Martina, Friedrich Schmuck, and Johannes Uhl.

Color in Townscape: For Architects, Designers and Contractors

and for City-Dwellers and Other Observant People. Translated by

John William Gabriel. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1981. 191 pp.

Endnotes/footnotes, B/W illus. , color illus. ISBN 0-7167-1310-1.

    The use of color on architectural exteriors is clearly discussed and

illustrated in this book, first published in Germany in 1980. A special

feature is the thoroughly documented overview of color theory that explains

and illustrates over a dozen systems developed between 1613 and 1980. An

illustrated discussion of color topography helps the reader understand the

ways in which color can be seen and used on exteriors. A case study and

examples of color in cities throughout the world effectively reinforce the


344. Foote, Kenneth E. Color in Public Spaces: Toward A Communication-

Based Theory of the Urban Built Environment. Chicago: University of

Chicago, Department of Geography, 1983. Research Paper No. 205. 153

pp. Bibl., B/W illus. ISBN 0-089065-111-6.

    This study by a geographer offers several perspectives on the use of

color in the urban built environment in the Chicago city center, with special

attention to how color varies in accordance with its organizational role. The

assumption is that the color of facades signals some kinds of information.

The study examines banks and churches; restaurants and retail

establishments; hotels, educational institutions, and hospitals; restaurants;

religious denominations; men’s and women’s clothing stores; and hotels

and motels. The price level of products related to several of these groups is

also noted, from least expensive to most expensive. Building facades were

photographed, their colors matched to Munsell, and the results charted. The

resulting color usage patterns are related to ongoing processes of “human

action, interaction and communication.” The impressive sweep of the

author’s interdisciplinary scholarship, and his concern for context and

meaning of color make this an exceptionally interesting work for the serious

reader interested in the built environment.

  1. 345.Gatz, Konrad and Wilhelm O. Wallenfang. Color in Architecture: A

Guide to Exterior Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1961. 192 pp.

B/w illus., color illus.

    The authors contend that form is first understood or perceived

through color, although designers do not always comprehend this fact.

They provide general guidelines for achieving ‚”characterization and

harmony” through color. The brief text is followed by hundreds of mainly

colored photographs that illustrate exterior color on a range of buildings

from small homes to large high rises. Captions in French, German, and

English provide only minimal additional information.

346. Hardy, Alexander C., ed. Colour in Architecture. London: Leonard Hill,

1967. 41 pp. color illus.

    This collection of essays by 14 authors offers an absorbing cross-

section of writings and research on color in architecture during the early

1960s. In his introduction, Hardy deplores the lack of information and

research on color, which he says may be explained by its comparative

complexity in relation to other factors contributing to design. Topics range

from uses and sources of architectural color in the past to color design for

safety. One essay by Derek Pool includes a literature review and summary

of relevant concepts, while another by Eric De Mare describes a color plan

for a community designed by an artist who adapts traditional British paint

colors for the region. The broad range of subjects, the many color

illustrations credited to consulting picture editor Eric De Mare, and the

inclusion of documentation enhance this work.

347. Hesselgren, Sven. The Language of Architecture. 2nd ed. London:

Applied Science, 1972. Vol. 1, 381 pp.; Vol. 2, 283 pp. Index,

appendix, B/W illus., color illus.

    After producing the Hesselgren Color Atlas in 1952, the author

went on to expand his 1954 doctoral dissertation into this two-volume

textbook on architectural theory. The first section on perception psychology

encompasses color, light,and illumination, while the second chapter treats

the formal aesthetics of color and light. Other chapters deal with

architectural expression, emotion-based connections to color, and

architectonic rooms and townscapes. Especially useful are the summaries

and references for further study. Because all of the illustrations are located

in the second volume, the reader must flip back and forth to find the

illustrations related to the complex text. This unusually comprehensive

work deserves a better book design that integrates illustrations into the text.

348. Kasprisin, Ronald I. Watercolor in Architectural Design. New

York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989. 268 pp. Index, appendix, B/W

illus., color illus. ISBN 0-442-22925-9.

    The author’s credo is that color is a “dynamic design tool, an energy

or force in motion, that should be an integral part of the design process from

inception to completion, not an afterthought of applied color,” and he sees

watercolor as an important medium for design communication. He provides

well-illustrated and clearly explained treatments of the nature of color and

light, color relationships, the Munsell system, pigments and mixing colors,

and various hue circles that may be mixed from pigments. The delightful

color interaction section is illustrated by simple house shapes, with doors in

contrasting colors, in place of the usual nested squares used for color

exercises. Technical problems of special interest to students are neatly

organized by description, objective, strategy, sequence, and technique. The

author’s process for diagramming ideas is shown in a chapter on

preliminary studies. Descriptions of his painting methods accompany the

watercolors, which vary from quick proposals to sophisticated watercolor

renderings. This carefully grounded and documented text also covers safety

in the workplace.

349. Koos, Uwe, and Konrad J. Richter.  The Book of Design.

Neusäss, Kiesser Verlag, 2001. 112 pp. B/W illus., color illus., index.

    Originally published in German in 1996 as Das Gestaltungsbuch,

this excellent book presents a European approach to color design

education with color and culture as a sub-theme. The sequence of color

design foundation topics include problems and exercises for students of

interior and exterior architecture. The six chapters thoroughly cover light and

lighting effects on colors; color keys and contrasts;  texture and light; bodies

of buildings, buildings and environment; room and interior spaces, and

technique. Many illustrations show stages in the design process, from

preliminary drawings, layout, to final presentation of buildings. The text is

lavishly illustrated with excellent color or B/W photos and diagrams. Uwe

Koos, color consultant and art director for StoDesign International, is

responsible for  20  Colour and Architectural Design studios in six countries,

Germany, Austria, Switzerland, USA, France, and China, and is credited with

many projects in the United States.  Konrad J. Richter is senior master at the

Industrial Professional Schools of the Rhein-Sieg-Kreis in Hennef, Germany.

He works closely with architects and designers and is involved in advanced

vocational training and serves on examination boards in Germany.

350. Lancaster, Michael. Britain in View: Colour and the

Landscape. London: Quiller, 1984. 128 pp. Bibl., glossary, B/W illus.,

color illus. ISBN 0-907621-29-5.

    The broad scope of the book and the author’s sensitivity to color in

both the natural and built environment comes out of his background as both

architect and landscape architect, as Richard Gloucester tells us in the

foreword. Aspects of environmental color in Europe as well as in Britain

are featured in this compact yet comprehensive book. Neatly organized

major sections cover the nature of color, the geography of color, color and

new structures, and color guidelines. A special section on regional color

follows Lenclos’ method of documenting the soil, rocks, paving, plants,

traditional buildings, and townscapes. The concise “Colour Effects”

chapter deftly summarizes color and light theory, principles of paint mixing,

additive and subtractive color primaries, color meaning, presence of color in

nature, color “attachment” or relationship of color to its background color,

Itten’s seven color contrasts, color balance and assimilation, and more.

With this beautiful book Lancaster joins the company of inspired English

architects Alexander Hardy and Tom Porter, who write so eloquently about

color in the designed environment.

351. Lin, Mike W. Architectural Rendering Techniques: A Color Reference.

New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985. 253 pp. Bibl., color illus.

ISBN 0-442-25953-0.

    This “color reference” consists of a portfolio of colored renderings

of techniques and styles from the 1970s and early 1980s by students and

professionals in architecture, landscape architecture, and interior and

graphic design, a list of contents and a one-page preface. While the lack of

explanation may not detract from the book’s value when it is used in

connection with the author’s popular workshops, it is questionable whether

the student or serious reader will be able to decipher or reproduce the

techniques without an instructor or written guidance.

352.Linton, Harold. Color Consulting: A Survey of International

Color Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991. 196 pp.

Index, bibl, appendix, B/W illus., color illus. ISBN 0-442-23352-3.

    This definitive reference on color consulting presents color planning

concepts and issues and showcases the work of selected design

professionals from Europe and the United States, often with interviews by

the author. Environmental color design dominates discussions that range

from presentation model studies, color libraries, color graphics, and surface

treatments to designs for residential and non-residential projects. Examples

of designers who collaborate with industry include graphic designer

Deborah Sussman and the 1984 Olympics, and color consultant Leatrice

Eiseman of Pantone®. Also reported is the work on electronic color by

Richard Norman, the interior color-space research of Nancy Kwallek, and

the educational work and writings of five former students of Josef Albers,

including the author. The introduction on historic preservation of

architecture is by color authority Roger Moss, and the concluding chapter is

by Werner Spillman, who illustrates a short history of color order systems

with many rare examples from his own collection in Winterthur,

Switzerland. A list of international color organizations and a bibliography

complete this beautifully illustrated reference.

353. Lorenz, Albert, and Stanley Salzman. Drawing in Color:

Rendering Techniques for Architects and Illustrators. New York:

Watson-Guptill, Whitney Library of Design, 1991. 223 pp. Index, B/W

illus, color illus. ISBN 0-8230-1384-7.

    This handsome volume begins with systems of color harmony,

introduces color as light, discusses pigment, shows hue circles of Newton,

Goethe, Munsell, Holzel, and Itten, and moves on to hue, value, intensity,

sight, symbol, warm-cool, aerial perspective, analogous, complementary,

monochromatic and triadic color. A chapter on media and techniques

thoroughly reviews and illustrates working methods for gouache, pencil,

pigment, and watercolor and water base analine dyes. Techniques for

crayon on glossy photos and airbrush are also given. Profusely illustrated

with dramatic drawings from the authors’ commissions as well as work by

their students at Pratt Institute of Architecture, a systematic overview covers

people, interiors, exteriors, entourage or surroundings, aerials, etchings,

and even more imaginative drawings which are the authors’ personal

illustrations for books, magazines, posters and Christmas cards.

354. Moss, Roger. Century of Color: Exterior Decoration for

American Buildings, 1820-1920. Watkins Glen, NY: American Life

Foundation, 1981. 108 pp. Index, bibl., endnotes/footnotes, B/W illus.,

color illus. ISBN 0-89257-051-2.

    This practical handbook was written to help home owners select

historically appropriate colors for American houses built from 1820 to

1920, and to use those colors to emphasize the character and detail of the

structures. A well-documented essay provides information on historic use

of color in decorative exterior detailing. One hundred color plates

reproduced from original printed sources graphically illustrate color usage.

A “color affinity chart” keyed to what the author calls “heritage colors,”

Munsell notations for the 57 colors found in two of the earliest surviving

color cards, and a bibliography make this a superb resource for home

owners or design professionals interested in authentic historic restoration.

355. Plummer, Henry. Poetics of Light. Tokyo: A + U, 1987. 196 pp.

Color illus.

    Although the author’s intent was to focus his camera on images of

light, his remarkable photographs also reveal the powerful interrelationship

of light and color. Early on, the author states that “light ‘colours’ things

and ‘tunes’ men, and determine [s] the atmosphere or mood of the place.”

This view inspires the author’s text and his unusual photographs of the

inner and outer faces of architecture around the globe. The book is

organized into three chapters on light and matter, light and space, and light

and time. Each chapter includes essays on a dozen imaginative subtopics,

followed by nearly 40 pages of magnificent color photographs. A special

feature is the use of choice quotations that appear in the margins to

supplement or document the discussions of light and color concepts and

related ideas. The text of this lavishly illustrated special edition of the

December 1987 issue of Architecture and Urbanism is in both English and

Japanese. The introduction is by Christian Norbert-Schulz.

356. Pomada, Elizabeth and Michael Larsen. Painted Ladies: San Francisco’s

Resplendent Victorians. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1978. 80 pp. ISBN 0-525-47523-0.

    The rainbow colors of restored San Francisco Victorian dwellings is

lovingly documented in this first publication in a series that includes

Daughters of Painted Ladies (1987), The Painted Ladies Revisited (1989),

and How to Create Your Own Painted Ladies (1989). A discussion of 19th

century color and taste-makers, the context of the Colorist movement, and

the work of the responsible color designers is explained and documented.

357. Porter, Tom. Architectural Color: A Design Guide to Using

Color on Buildings. New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1982.

128 pp. Index, bibl., color illus. ISBN 0-8230-7407-2.

    This American edition of Color Outside affirms color as a vital

element of architectural design. The author contends that a fusion of form

and color can both coordinate with the environment and create a new

environment. A brief historical overview looks at color in architecture from

ancient Greece to contemporary buildings in Europe and North and South

America. The many interesting topics range from color association and

symbolic color to Jean Philippe Lenclos’s method of using soil samples as a

point of departure. A summary of color theory, with an emphasis on the

Munsell color system, and a discussion of the implications of color relativity

for architectural color strengthen the book. The highly readable text is

accompanied by numerous color illustrations of buildings throughout the

world. The 26 item international bibliography contains books and articles

published between 1972 and 1980. The introduction is by Michael Graves.

358. Porter, Tom. Colour Outside. London: Architectural, 1982. 128 pp.

Index, bibl., B/W illus., color illus. ISBN 0-85139-772-7.

    The fine illustrations and excellent text are identical with the

American edition of this work titled Architectural Color: A Design Guide to

Using Color on Buildings.

359. Porter, Tom. How Architects Visualize. New York: Van Nostrand

Reinhold, 1979. 120 pp. Index, bibl., B/W illus. ISBN 0-442~26149-7.

    Rather than teaching design as “drawing board style,” here the

method is experiential and holistic. The text leads students to understand

and visualize space through firsthand experience with the spatial variables of

light, surface, shape and form. Major sections on the history of spatial

representation examine sensations of space, spatial elements, spatial codes,

simulating real space, perceptual-psychological space, Gestalt perception

principles, and depth perception clues in pictorial space. The author

maintains that we experience each of the spatial elements as a component of

all the others, so that color is texture and form, and provides several student

exercises to test his thesis. The first consists of mixing-to-match an

observed form and recording the color nuances in a color scale. Next is a

color wheel project that starts with red and its bluish-green afterimage,

creates a subtractive color circle based on red green and blue yellow

opposites, intermixes red and green paint to test subtractive color saturation,

and finally suggests experiments with additive light primaries. Further

explanations and black and white diagrams show a color model with hue,

saturation (or chroma), and brightness (or value); a hue circle with

wavelengths of light for its 10 hues; and several historic color models.

Another project involves drawings of texture and color gradients arranged

into three-dimensional floorscape and wall-scape relationships. Relevant

research findings appear throughout this work. The lack of color plates is

the only shortcoming of this superb book, which should appeal to design

educators interested in three-dimensional design and color experience.

360. Reeves, I.S.K. Color and Its Effect on Behavior Modification in

Correctional/Detention Facilities. Winter Park, FL: Green Apple, 1985. 1 1

pp. Bibl., B/W illus.

    In 1978, members of Reeves’ firm, Architects Design Group of

Florida, interviewed inmates and learned that they hated the lack of colors in

their jail. Their discovery that there was little research on the subject

inspired this little overview of color in the prison environment. Frequent

reference is made to the work of Faber Birren, including summaries of the

psychological effects of six colors. The most interesting feature is a one-

page space/color utilization matrix that augments the very brief discussion of

behavior modification through color in a correctional facility. The matrix

features five columns that list: kinds of spaces, such as inmate housing;

desired behavior; psychological perception of space and time; suggested

colors in order of preference; and perception of temperature as cool or

warm. The unannotated bibliography lists 24 books and articles on the


361.Rochon, Richard, and Harold Linton. Color in Architectural

Illustration. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989. 200 pp. Index,

bibl., color illus. ISBN 0-442-27672-9.

    This outstanding work starts with a survey of the history of color in

English architectural drawing. Then historic precedents in architectural

illustration and the fine arts are related to discussions of planning concepts

and color principles. Chapters on color attributes review and illustrate hue,

value, and chroma from an architectural viewpoint, and thoroughly cover

atmospheric color and light and environmental or seasonal color. The

handsome illustrations for these sections are by Richard Rochon. The

concluding third of the book features statements and work by 11

contemporary illustrators who represent a range of styles. The compelling,

well-organized text and the many superb illustrations make this an

exemplary design book for color instructors, students, and practitioners.

Illustrators in other design areas will find much useful information on color

dynamics in the design process.

362. U.S. Department of the Army. Color for Buildings. Washington, DC:

GPO, 1974. Unpaginated. Index, bibl., B/W illus., color illus.

    This loose-leaf technical manual is a guide for painting Army

buildings. After addressing the physical and psychological impact of color,

the manual shows how to use color to advantage. An illustrated section of

color schemes is coordinated with recommendations for painting everything

from aircraft hangars and washrooms to homes and hospitals. Readers will

find this an interesting, well-illustrated, and straightforward approach to

meeting color use needs on a large scale.

363. Wilson, Robert Francis. Color in Industry Today: A Practical Book on

the Functional Use of Color. Foreword by Faber Birren. London: George

Allen & Unwin, 1960. 90 pp. Bibl., B/W illus., color illus.

    The former director of the British Color Council contends that

human comfort, efficiency, and productivity are affected by surroundings,

and that the appropriate use of color and lighting can achieve an optimum

working environment. He begins with a brief summary of color theories

and phenomena, including a careful discussion of afterimage, and also

considers color vision and color deficiencies. He summarizes information

on color psychology and color preference, though his references to specific

studies on color preference are not fully documented. The last half of the

book provides recommendations for color and lighting applications in

industry, business, hospitals, and schools. Both the Ostwald and Munsell

notations are given, making it possible to replicate the recommended colors.

While dated, this book is an excellent early example on this topic by a noted

designer of English color systems whose practice and writings span the

period from the 1930s through the 1950s. Readers may want to compare

Wilson’s ideas to discussions of the same subjects by Faber Birren.