419. Biggs, Emest. Colour in Advertising. London: Studio Vista, 1956. 160

pp. Index, bibl., B/W illus., color illus.

    The book is based on the premise that a greater awareness of color

will result in better and more thoughtful use of color in advertising. After a

brief discussion of human response to color, Biggs provides general

information on advertising and then looks at the role of color in

communicating ideas. Individual chapters are devoted to packaging, print

advertisements and materials, posters, film, and television. The chapter on

export advertising comments briefly on color preferences and associations

in foreign countries. The discussion of standardization focuses on the

Ostwald color system, and a six-page summary highlights the main points

in each chapter. The broad scope of this book makes it an excellent historic

resource on the topic. Unfortunately, no recent publications cover the topic

as thoroughly.

420. Birren, Faber. Selling with Color. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1945. 244

pp. Index, bibl., B/W illus.

    Birren discusses the psychology of color within the context of the

sale of consumer goods, product development, merchandising, advertising,

packaging, and display. He provides a broad overview of taste and color

preferences and reviews color theory, systems, and symbolism. Birren

states that his theories are supported by extensive research and sales records

and then justifies the absence of rigorous documentation by rationalizing that

the book is practical in nature and intended for a varied audience that would

make little use of references. Nevertheless, it is an important early work.

421. Birren, Faber. Selling Color to People. New York: University Books,

1956. 219 pp. Bibl., B/W illus., color illus.

    This classic work emphasizes the use of color in business and

industry. Birren focuses on the American public, principles of research,

measuring consumer acceptance, strategies in merchandising, visibility,

legibility, color and human response, and color harmony. While dated in

both its graphic presentation and its examples, this book may be of interest

to the student of marketing history or color in marketing.

422. Cheskin, Louis. Color forProfit. New York: Liveright, 1951. 209 pp.

Index, appendix, color illus.

    In this work on color design as a marketing tool, the author

recommends eliminating personal taste and subjective judgment when

selecting colors. Rather, he advocates a scientific approach based on

controlled testing that relies on optical and psychological effects of colors

and images, examines rapid eye movement and free association, and

measures attention, retention, and preference. Cheskin first describes

procedures for testing color and design effectiveness in home furnishings,

apparel, and store interiors, and applies test results to package design,

window displays, posters, and advertising. The author concludes that

color preference is most influenced by specific value levels of the colors,

presence of other colors, and the objects with which a color is associated.

He recommends attention to color symbolism, associations, and proportion

and endorses use of complementary hues. Basic information on the

physical, chemical, and psychological aspects of color can be found in the

appendix. This thorough book has little but historical value because it has

been superseded by new works.

423. Cheskin, Louis. Color Guide for Marketing Media. New York:

Macmillan, 1954. 209 pp. Index, color illus.

    Effective color use in packaging, advertising, and other marketing

media is explained in this important early work on the subject. Topics

include: the physical, chemical, physiological, and psychological aspects of

color; the impact of color on visibility and legibility; and the power of color

as revealed in color symbolism and preference. Anyone interested in color

and marketing will want to be familiar with this clearly written basic work.

424. Danger, Eric Paxton. The Colour Handbook: How to Use Colour in

Commerce and Industry. Hampshire, England: Gower Technical, 1987.

687 pp. Bibl., B/W illus. ISBN 0-291-39717-4.

    Danger’s comprehensive overview includes detailed information on

lighting, color relativity, human response to color, and a wide variety of

functions and uses of color. He provides specific guidelines for selecting

colors for environments, products, and promotional materials. Of general

interest is the analysis in the final section of the “attributes, applications,

characteristics, properties, and uses of colors.” Warm, cool, bright, dull,

light, medium, dark, pure, modified, neutral, strong, pastel, deep, and

natural colors are discussed first, and then specific color families are

considered in equal detail. This often-cited compendium of color

information is amazingly broad ill its scope. Its major shortcoming is that

with the exception of one black-and-white drawing of a hue circle, it is

entirely unillustrated. Danger indicates that published information and well-

conducted research are the basis for this work but does not reveal his

sources. An 18-page bibliography lists books, articles, and reports.

425. Danger, Eric Paxton. How to Use Color to Sell. Boston: Cahners, 1968.

224 pp. Index, bibl.

    Factors that contribute to color decisions and motivations that

influence consumer actions are analyzed. Color trends and strategies for

making color choices for products and packaging are also discussed.

Danger emphasizes identifying the preferred colors while also maintaining

the minimum number of colors that are adequate for market needs. The

British viewpoint, lack of documentation, and age of this book may limit its

usefulness to designers today. This is the American edition of Danger’s

Using Colour to Sell, which presents the same text under a slightly different title.

426. Danger, Eric Paxton. Using Colour to Sell. London: Gower, 1983. 224

pp. Index, bibl. ISBN 0-7161-0004-5.

    This is the English edition, under a slightly different name, of

Danger’s How to Use Color to Sell. No revisions have been made.

  1. 427.Ketcham, Howard. Color Planning for Business and Industry. New

York:Harper, 1958. 274 pp. Index, B/W illus., color illus.

    With this work Ketcham introduced professional color planning to

the American business world of the 1950s. He discusses the emotional

impact of color and the use of color to improve both the utility and appeal of

products and the productivity and satisfaction of workers and students in the

workplace and schools. He also briefly reviews color usage from ancient Egypt

to the Renaissance. A major portion of the book looks at examples of practical

color usage from camouflage to transportation. While dated, this early work by

an authority on color and lighting provides a good overview of the topic at a

pecific point in time. It is interesting to compare this book to Sutnar’s

Package Design, which was published only five years earlier but fails to

address the role of color in packaging.

428.Longyear, William. How to Use Colour in Advertising Design, Illustration

and Painting. New York: Pitman, 1949. 40 pp. B/W illus., color illus.

    Longyear was professor and chair of advertising design at the Pratt

Institute. Written in the American how-to tradition, this book presents the

pigment approach to color use with considerable attention to technique for

painting and illustration. It includes such interesting features as a list of

seven color combinations that are most legible at a distance and directives

for successful use of color. It also provides information on color theory,

illusions, phenomena, and psychology, with paintings, posters, and

drawings used as examples. Although dated, this is one of the few works

from the 1940s directed toward advertising design as well as illustration and

painting. Longyear refers the reader to Munsell and to Egbert Jacobson’s

Basic Color for more theoretical information.

429. Luckiesh, Matthew. Light and Color in Advertising and Merchandising.

New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1923. 268 pp. Index, B/W illus., color illus.

    Luckiesh, a physicist at General Electric, relates color and light to

their potential impact on advertising and merchandising. He describes the

characteristics of color and how they can be utilized in an appealing and

convincing way to reinforce the selling power of advertisement. He also

deals with color preference, symbolism, and emotional response as they

relate to “attention-value” (and therefore affect advertising) and makes some

general recommendations for selecting colors. The last half of the book

concentrates on lighting in relation to pigments in displays and interiors.

Observation and research are said to be the basis for Luckiesh’s discussion,

though no documentation is provided. This book will be of interest

primarily to those who study the history of color usage in advertisement and


430. Nelson, Roy Paul. The Design of Advertising. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C.

Brown, 1981. 383 pp. Index, bibl., endnotes/footnotes, glossary, B/W

illus., color illus. ISBN 0-697-04348-7.

    Nelson starts with a general discussion of advertising and then

focuses on copy, creativity, tools and techniques, design principles, layout,

production, typography and art, and color. Most of the book deals with

print and broadcast advertising in individual chapters on direct-mail

advertising, posters, displays, designs for trademarks, logos, packaging

and other specific applications. The useful color chapter provides basic

information on the characteristics of color, color preferences, and

symbolism and practical advice on the use of color in production. This

well-written and well-documented text book includes many relevant

illustrations and an extensive bibliography.